Tr-I-LIfe

Hello! Welcome to my tumblr! I am a Nursing student and hope that my Nursing related posts will be helpful to all my fellow student nurses!

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Posts tagged "pharmacology"

nurse-blog:

Medication SUFFIXES

  • "Caine" - Local Anesthetics
  • "Done" - Opioid analgesics
  • "Mycin" - Antibiotics
  • "Micin" - Antibiotics
  • "Oxacin" - Broad Spectrum Anti-biotics
  • "Vir" - Anti-virals
  • "Dine" - anti-ulcer agents (H2 Histamine Blockers)
  • "Lam" - anti-anxiety agents
  • "Pam" - anti-anxiety agents
  • "Nuim" - neuromuscular blockers
PINWORM—A$$ment and Pharm Treatment..Mnemonic



1. Eggs are deposited on perianal folds.
2. Eggs may be ingested when people touch their mouth after they scratch their perianal area (autoinfection) or after handling contaminated clothes or other objects (eg, bed linens, curtains, carpeting); handling contaminated objects may also cause a few eggs to become airborne and thus ingested.
3. After eggs are ingested, they travel to the small intestine, where they hatch, releasing larvae.
4. The adult worms establish themselves in the cecal lumen.
5. At night, gravid females migrate outside the anus and lay eggs as they crawl on the skin of the perianal area.
SOURCE




THE “SCOTCH TAPE TEST”

*Note pt is BENDing over for “Tape Test”

TREATMENT 
Mebendazole (ME-BEND-azole)
HAHA, Get it? and for the “azole” ending I (bc I’m weird) think of pasta.. so spaghetti noodles=pinworms)

Mode of Action
Mebendazole inhibits the formation of the worms’ microtubules and causes the worms’ glucose depletion.
 Indications and Usage for Mebendazole
Mebendazole tablets are indicated for the treatment of Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm),Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), Ascaris lumbricoides (common roundworm), Ancylostoma duodenale (common hookworm), Necator americanus (American hookworm) in single or mixed infections.
Efficacy varies as a function of such factors as preexisting diarrhea and gastrointestinal transit time, degree of infection, and helminth strains. Efficacy rates derived from various studies are shown in the table below:
Contraindications
Mebendazole is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to the drug.
Warnings
There is no evidence that Mebendazole, even at high doses, is effective for hydatid disease. There have been rare reports of neutropenia and agranulocytosis when Mebendazole was taken for prolonged periods and at dosages substantially above those recommended.
Precautions
General
Periodic assessment of organ system functions, including hematopoietic and hepatic, is advisable during prolonged therapy.
Information for Patients
Patients should be informed of the potential risk to the fetus in women taking Mebendazole during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester (See Pregnancy).
Patients should also be informed that cleanliness is important to prevent reinfection and transmission of the infection.
Drug Interactions

Preliminary evidence suggests that cimetidine inhibits Mebendazole metabolism and may result in an increase in plasma concentrations of Mebendazole.


 

PINWORM—A$$ment and Pharm Treatment..Mnemonic

pinwormlife

1. Eggs are deposited on perianal folds.

2. Eggs may be ingested when people touch their mouth after they scratch their perianal area (autoinfection) or after handling contaminated clothes or other objects (eg, bed linens, curtains, carpeting); handling contaminated objects may also cause a few eggs to become airborne and thus ingested.

3. After eggs are ingested, they travel to the small intestine, where they hatch, releasing larvae.

4. The adult worms establish themselves in the cecal lumen.

5. At night, gravid females migrate outside the anus and lay eggs as they crawl on the skin of the perianal area.

SOURCE

THE “SCOTCH TAPE TEST”

*Note pt is BENDing over for “Tape Test”

TREATMENT

Mebendazole (ME-BEND-azole)

HAHA, Get it? and for the “azole” ending I (bc I’m weird) think of pasta.. so spaghetti noodles=pinworms)

Mode of Action

Mebendazole inhibits the formation of the worms’ microtubules and causes the worms’ glucose depletion.

Indications and Usage for Mebendazole

Mebendazole tablets are indicated for the treatment of Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm),Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), Ascaris lumbricoides (common roundworm), Ancylostoma duodenale (common hookworm), Necator americanus (American hookworm) in single or mixed infections.

Efficacy varies as a function of such factors as preexisting diarrhea and gastrointestinal transit time, degree of infection, and helminth strains. Efficacy rates derived from various studies are shown in the table below:

Contraindications

Mebendazole is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to the drug.

Warnings

There is no evidence that Mebendazole, even at high doses, is effective for hydatid disease. There have been rare reports of neutropenia and agranulocytosis when Mebendazole was taken for prolonged periods and at dosages substantially above those recommended.

Precautions

General

Periodic assessment of organ system functions, including hematopoietic and hepatic, is advisable during prolonged therapy.

Information for Patients

Patients should be informed of the potential risk to the fetus in women taking Mebendazole during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester (See Pregnancy).

Patients should also be informed that cleanliness is important to prevent reinfection and transmission of the infection.

Drug Interactions

Preliminary evidence suggests that cimetidine inhibits Mebendazole metabolism and may result in an increase in plasma concentrations of Mebendazole.

 

24nurse:

Drug therapy for multi-system disorders.

Antenatal laboratory testing revealed a negative rubella antibody for a client admitted to the postpartum unit. Which action takes priority for this client during early puerperium?

1. Rubella counseling and immunization with adult measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine

2. Rubella counseling and immunization with Rho(D) immune gobulin (RhoGAM) vaccine

3. Rubella counseling and immunization with live rubella virus vaccine

4. Rubella counseling and instruction to obtain live rubella virus vaccine during her first postpartum examination


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d

Aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and many other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) work as COX inhibitors.  They suppress the catalytic functions of the enzymes COX1 and COX2.  COX2, which appears up injuries and other inflammatory stimuli, is deemed “bad”.  It catalyzes the synthesis of prostaglandins that, located near sites of injuries, cause pain and inflammation.  Inhibition of COX2 is responsible for the therapeutic effects of reducing pain, inflammation, and fever.  COX1, which is present in many parts of the body, is deemed “good.”  It catalyzes the synthesis of prostaglandins that perform many physiological functions, e.g., maintaining the mucus lining of the stomach or causing platelets in the blood to stick and form clots over wounds.  Inhibition of COX1 is responsible for the drugs’ side effect of stomach irritation.  In reducing the risk of blood clots, it is also responsible for aspirin’s efficacy in heart attack prevention.  A new class of NSAID, COX2 inhibitor, is designed to target bad COX2 selectively and leave good COX1 alone, thus reducing pain and inflammation without upsetting the stomach.

ASPIRIN:

Pharmacology

Inhibits prostaglandin synthesis, resulting in analgesia, anti-inflammatory activity, and platelet aggregation inhibition; reduces fever by acting on the brain’s heat-regulating center to promote vasodilation and sweating.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Rapidly and completely absorbed. T max is 1 to 2 h (salicylic acid).

Distribution

Widely distributed to all tissues and fluids, including CNS, breast milk, and fetal tissues. Approximately 90% of salicylate is protein bound at concentrations of less than 100 mcg/mL and approximately 75% is bound at concentrations of more than 400 mcg/mL.

Metabolism

Rapidly hydrolyzed to salicylic acid (active). Salicylic acid is conjugated in the liver to the metabolites.

Elimination

Salicylic acid plasma half—life is approximately 6 h, but may exceed 20 h in higher doses. The half—life is approximately 15 to 20 min for aspirin. Elimination follows zero-order kinetics. Renal elimination of unchanged drug depends on urine pH. A pH of more than 6.5 increases renal Cl of free salicylate from less than 5% to more than 80%.

Indications and Usage

Treatment of mild to moderate pain; fever; various inflammatory conditions; reduction of risk of death or MI in patients with previous infarction or unstable angina pectoris, or recurrent transient ischemia attacks (TIAs) or stroke in men who have had transient brain ischemia caused by platelet emboli.

Unlabeled Uses

Prevention of cataract formation; prevention of toxemia of pregnancy; improvement of inadequate uteroplacental blood flow in pregnancy; prophylaxis against thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation, mitral valve prolapse, peripheral arterial disease, bioprosthetic or mechanical heart valves, and in pregnant patients with prosthetic heart valves; antithrombotic therapy in children with Blalock-Taussig shunt or ischemic stroke, and in children after Fontan surgery.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to salicylates or NSAIDs; hemophilia, bleeding ulcers, or hemorrhagic states

—————————————————————————————————————————————————

IBUPROFEN:

Pharmacology

Decreases inflammation, pain, and fever, probably through inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity and prostaglandin synthesis.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

max is 1 to 2 h (oral). Bioavailability is less than 80% (oral). C max is 39.2 mcg/mL and 72.6 mcg/mL for a 400 and 800 mg IV dose, respectively.

Distribution

Highly protein bound.

Elimination

Plasma half-life is 1.8 to 2 h (oral) and 2.22 to 2.44 h (IV). 45% to 79% is eliminated through the urine (oral). Cl is 3 to 35 L/h (oral).

Indications and Usage

IV : In adults for the management of mild to moderate pain and as an adjunct to opioid analgesics in the management of moderate to severe pain. PO : Relief of signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, mild to moderate pain, primary dysmenorrhea, reduction of fever, migraine.

Contraindications

Treatment of perioperative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery; patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs; hypersensitivity to any component of the product.

A woman with severe preeclampsia has been receiving magnesium sulfate by intravenous infusion for 8 hours. The nurse assesses the woman and documents the following findings: temperature of 37.1° C, pulse rate of 96 beats/min, respiratory rate of 24 breaths/min, blood pressure (BP) of 155/112 mm Hg, 3+ deep tendon reflexes, and no ankle clonus. The nurse calls the physician, anticipating an order for:

A.Hydralazine.B.Magnesium sulfate bolus.C.Diazepam.D.Calcium gluconate.

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Tetracycline: teratogenicityTEtracycline is a 
TEratogen that causes staining of 
TEeth in the newborn.
Show Details / Rate It 
—- 
 
Teratogenic drugs: major non-antibioticsTAP CAP:
Thalidomide
Androgens
Progestins
Corticosteroids
Aspirin & indomethacin
Phenytoin
Show Details / Rate It 
—-Manpreet GMC Amritsar 
 
Teratogenic drugsWTERATOgenic”:
Warfarin
Thalidomide
Epileptic drugs: phenytoin, valproate, carbamazepine
Retinoid
ACE inhibitor
Third element: lithium
OCP and other hormones (eg danazol)